German empire states history short note

In 449, Germanic tribes invaded Britain. They came from the different regions of Denmark and then gradually occupied the low-lands and highlands. But about their locations, there is no strong evidence. It was actually known by Bede and Anglo-Saxons. Bede said that the Germanic tribes who wanted to defeat Britain were the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. Anglo-Saxons came from Denmark and Jutes came from Northern Denmark.

When Romans were the governor of Britain, enemy attack was hard and that’s why Roman rulers kept defenders to counter attack and maintain their peace. These defenders also kept out the enemy of Celts named Pics and Scots. So, they protected the Celts from the Germanic tribes as well as Pics and Scots. And the Celts lived in peace without any fear. They completely depended on the Romans. Consequently, when Romans left, Celts got into danger. They were unable to keep out Pics and Scots. Even they went to the Romans for help several times but the Romans refused because they were busy defending their own territory at home. 

A Celtic leader, named Vortigern, made an agreement with Jutes where they gave the Isle of Thanet and Jutes drove away the Picts and Scots. But taking help from the Jutes was the main trouble for the Celts. Jutes’ actual intention was to occupy the whole country. Celts realized the danger afterwards. When Romans conquered Celts, their target was to rule the place but the Jutes targeted Celts to destroy and drive them away. In 477 Saxons came and settled there and established themselves in Sussex. Then Angles occupied the east coast and established an Anglian kingdom in 547. 

In some districts, where the Celts were few in number, Anglo-Saxons easily occupied those places. But it took time to occupy some places where Celts were more in number and fought against them. Most of the Celts took refuge in Wales and Cornwell. In order to survive, they choose to work in agriculture and hunt as an occupation. After several times, Britain established seven kingdoms. They were: Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Wessex. Some of the kingdoms were occupied by one king or some kingdoms were occupied by several kings. In the 7th century, Northumbria was more powerful than other kingdoms. After that, in the 8th century, Mercia came into power. In the 9th century, Egbert, the king of Wessex, ruled other six kingdoms as well and turned them into one kingdom. Wales also accepted him as ruler of Britain. Eventually, the name of Britain became the United Kingdom.

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